All information systems will have problems, regardless of how well the system is designed. Some of the things that promote information system has problems, such as:

Time (overtime)
System environment has changed
Changes in operational procedures


Fixed issue called maintenance of information systems programming, which includes responses to system problems and adding new functionality to the system. Maintenance programming includes 60 to 90 percent of the programming budget and indicate whether the information system is deteriorating need to be replaced or maintained by performing minor repairs (minor).

Information system problems patronizing characteristics / value of information, namely:



value of Information

Relevance (relevancy).
Accuracy (accuracy),
completeness (completeness),
truth (correctness),
safety (security).
Timeliness (timeliness).
Economy (economy), which has factors: resources (resources) and
cost (cost).
Efficiency (eficiency).
Trustworthiness (reliability).
Usability (usability


Relevance (relevancy)

The results of the information system (SI) should be used for the management of operational level, tactical and strategic. If it can not be used, the information is not eligible to be considered again



Some of the symptoms of the information is no longer relevant, among others:

Many report that it is too long
The report is not used by those who receive it.
Requests for information are not available in the SI.
As the report was available but not requested / required.
Accumulation of grievances user when a report is not


and disseminated.

Completeness (completeness)

Data is not only inserted correctly, but also must be complete. If an information system has a 95% accuracy of the data, but only 80% of the required information, then the system will not be effective.

Here are some symptoms of incompleteness (Incompleteness).

Most of the data is returned to the user because of the source document or filling the forms are incomplete.
Supervisory data indicate a field or fields that are not filled due to deliberate or accidental.
The data entry section called user to clarify the sources of data from documents.

Truth (correctness)

Truth is usually thought of as accuracy. All data from the field must be entered correctly. Here are the symptoms of unrighteousness, among others:

Total transaction errors increase compared to its quality.
Requests for changes to the program have increased.
Problems that occur after the end of the normal working day has increased.
The number of critical errors increase.

For example, is the fault of the outstanding balance, the customer can reduce the input of cash, thus making the customer experience dissatisfaction.
Security (security)

Often the information is sent to everyone who needs it. Security surveillance is checking to determine if the structure of sensitive information addressed to unauthorized users.
Timeliness (timeliness)

Some of the symptoms that indicate the issue of timeliness:

Exodus (throughput) of information systems has decreased.
Throughput is the rate of the transaction process until the end of time that is free of errors.
Heaps of data entry increases.
A heap of data entry occurs when the transaction data is not directly inserted at the time (postponed / delayed).
Complaints about the slow system of reporting has increased.
The time needed to fix a program error increases.
The number of complaints from users about the difficulty in contacting staff maintenance program and operations staff.

Economy (economy)

Information system costs will rise in accordance with the passage of time. Although there are some costs decreased, and some will go up many things that showed rising costs, such as maintenance of hardware and program consultants, and so on. Many organizations hire consultants as a programmer or analyst during the project. For the short term it will drastically increase the cost of labor, but in the long run reduce costs for expensive system gain that information.
Efficiency (eficiency)

Efficiency is how much production is increased due to an additional unit of resources in their production processes. For example, a company spent $ 500,000 for inventory systems. Sales increased $ 100,000 as a result of the new system.
The efficiency of the system are:
— = 20%
Here some of the ratios can be calculated and analyzed, among others:

Output / value of money (trougput / dollar)
Output / time to enter the data (trougput / data entry of hours worked).
Transaction without error / time (errorless transaction / hours)
Errors were corrected / value for money (errors corrected / dollar).
Changes program / programmer number (program changes / number of programmers)
The cost of paper / transaction (paper costs / transaction).

Trustworthiness (reliability)

An important indicator of system information that is by paying attention to reliability problems. Some of the symptoms of reliability issues, among others:

Computer downtime, ie the information system works well when good computer, then the computer has decreased.
The number of employees experienced turnover (turnover), the average level of employee work well out, and new employees trained.
Fault repair time program, ie the user can not predict how long it will take to fix an error information, perhaps an hour or four weeks.
Costs, namely high variant of the average cost each month.
Piles of transaction, ie the number of transactions delayed or denied.
The average error, which is the average error that can not be
predictable, so as to bring it down.

Usability (usability)

Nothing is better than a system designed in accordance with the criteria. If the system is difficult to use, meaning is a problem in the system.
Some symptoms that show little usefulness (poor usability) systems, among others:

The length of time training for novice users.
The high average error occurred.
The rise in consumer complaints.
Rising kemangkinan of most computer users.

Information systems backlog

Heaps of data entry is a condition in which the transaction came not directly included (posted) to record at the beginning of the next working day.
The purpose uatma of business information systems is to save resources (to keep track of resources), so the failure to update (to update)
resource record is a serious system problems.
As analysts, it is important to know what is causing a pile (backlogs) and the problems caused backlogs systems.

There are five reasons why a pile of information system problems can occur:

The volume of transactions increased (increase of transaction volume).
The decline in performance (decreasing performance).
High employee turnover (employee turnover).
System downtime.
Transaction variances.

Some problems backlogs caused some chaos, among others:

The backlog of such records may (lack of record currency).
The increase in the average error (Increased error rates).
The increase in costs (Increased costs).
The increase in turnover (Increased employee turnover).

Detection of sources of information system problems:

Complaints user (user complaints),
The attention of top management (top management concerns),
Cicerone (scouting)
Supervisory user (user surveys)
Supervisors (audits)
Gauge system performance (performance measurement systems).
The preliminary report problems

The number of records (logs) issues a report can be used by a systems analyst for the initial study (preliminary study). This study reports or detection decide if the problem is serious enough to warrant further attention and attention to what needs to be done.
Analysts prepare an initial report problems include the following four elements:

Source, where the source of the problem originated information.
Nature, a brief description of the source of the problem.
Detailed analysis, technical development of problems (nature).
Recommendation, the extent to which the solution of the problem will be developed.

Recommendation types, consisting of:

The problem of small and maintenance needs.
The problem requires the ability of the system.
The problem is so serious that need detailed analysis.

This recommendation starts from the system development life cycle. Detail analysis decided apakahsistem now needs to be replaced with a new information system.




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